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Citations and referencing of external sources remain to be two of the major challenges that compel students to avail professional assistance online. While the process itself is quite complex, memorizing all the major citation styles becomes quite difficult for them. However, a student can learn the basics of Harvard referencing just by going through this article.

The Harvard referencing style has its own set of guidelines and restrictions that students need to comply with while drafting a paper. Some of the universities, in fact, strictly instruct their students to perform Harvard referencing generator. Deakin University does that very often. For those students, there’s no other option but to learn the Harvard style referencing.

Here is the list of major details that a student needs to know before drafting a paper in Harvard reference style:

1. The Footnote citation:

Unlike the APA and Harvard referencing style, which use in-text citations, Harvard referencing uses footnotes to cite the sources of information. In the text, students must insert a superscript number at the point where the information is used. The number stays slightly above the line.

At the bottom of the same page, the superscript number should be repeated, followed by the full detail of the cited source. Any writer should start the footnote numbering from 1 and continue the sequence throughout the paper.

If a student using the same source of information several times in the paper, he/she should give full details of the source in the first footnote. For the next mentions, one should use a shortened format of author surname, abbreviated title of the publication and page number.

2. Citing a quote:

If the student is using direct quotes under 30 words in the content, it should be enclosed in single inverted commas. Also, the quotes should be immediately followed by the superscript number, which will refer to a footnote at the bottom of the page. Long quotations over 30 words should be indented in the Harvard referencing system.

3. Creating the reference list:

The reference list should be in a separate page, located at the end of the paper. It should be titled “Reference List”. The list also needs to be arranged alphabetically by author surname. Here’s what students need to know while putting the details on the reference list:

§ In the footnotes, the author’s first name comes before the last name (H. Lee), while in the reference list, the last name comes first (Lee, P.)

§ If the source has no author, students should use the first substantive word in the title (not The or A) while putting it in the alphabetical sequence.

§ If information from certain pages of the source document has been used, one should mention the page number in the reference list with the entry. For the entire book, page numbers are not necessary.

Even though the name “reference list” and “bibliography” are often used interchangeably, they are not exactly the same. So, students should get clarity about this issue, before using an Harvard bibliography generator.


These aforementioned points can act like an Harvard referencing guide. However, students should practice more on their own to learn the application of Harvardreferencing style better.


Summary: Harvard referencing style uses footnotes to cite the sources of external references. If a student wants to prepare an academic paper in Oxford referencing style, he/she needs to know a lot more than that.


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Emma Davis is a computer architecture who serves as a guest lecturer in several IT colleges across the world. She is also associated with the brand through which she extends essay writing help to students pursuing bachelor degree from US/UK universities. On collaborating with, one can easily get free tools to cite their academic papers like APA reference generator, Harvard referencing generator, MLA, Chicago, Oxford citation tool and more. She is also an active blogger with an insatiable love for books and traveling. 

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